Mangrove Conservation and Planting

Mangrove Conservation and Planting
ENTRY DATE: 21 April 2015| LAST UPDATE: 21 April 2015
Categories: Coastal Regions | Improvement of structures
Technological Maturity: Applicable immediately
Technology Owners:
Needs Addressed
  • Coastal protection
  • Measures against erosion, storm surges, flooding, inundation
  • Conservation of resources
Adaptation Effects
  • Ecological protection and enhancement
  • Reduction of erosion and stimulation of sedimentation
  • Enhanced livelihood options
Overview and Features

Mangrove protection, reforestation, rehabilitation, restoration or afforestation in coastal areas conducted via community based participatory processes to enhance the natural protection of coastlines and enable the protection and sustainable use of coastal wetlands for the benefit of the local population through mangrove rehabilitation.

  • Assessment and planning processes
  • Human resources
  • Training
  • High-end estimates of the cost of restoration for coastal mangroves given at $2,880 per hectare for coastal mangrove restoration (Schmitt K, 2013)
  • Mangrove restoration in Viet Nam found to have capital and recurrent costs of about $41 per hectare Schmitt K, 2013)
Energy Source

Human resources

Ease of Maintenance
  • Effective maintenance and enhancement of the protection function of the mangrove forest belt achieved via co-management with communities
  • Provision of additional livelihood options provides community support for maintenance
  • Payment for ecosystem services contributes to sustainability of co-management
  • Require post-implementation protection from human and ecological impacts
  • Require strategic and comprehensive multi-stakeholder management
Technology Performance
  • US$1.1 million invested in mangrove rehabilitation in northern Viet Nam saved US$7.3 million annually for dyke maintenance (Schmitt, 2013)
  • Also in Vietnam, the trialling of innovative planting techniques which mimic nature has produced some initial results: small-scale plantings with densities of 5 to 9 seedlings per metre squared close to established trees and shrubs showed high survival rates and expansion of such plantings after 2 years formed a tapering forest edge (Schmitt, 2013)
  • Successful as part of an integrated, co-managed approach to coastal protection and rehabilitation
  • The ‘Management of Natural Resources in the Coastal Zone of Soc Trang Province, Viet Nam’ project had good results for responding to the high threats of climate change to the Mekong Delta, leading to expansion of programmes by various donors (Schmitt K, 2013)
  • Cost-benefit-analyses have indicated that without mangroves, dyke up-grade and maintenance will be very expensive in comparison to a less strong dyke behind a protective mangrove belt and will not provide the co-benefits of a healthy mangrove forest
Considerations (technology transfer criteria, challenges, etc.)

It is essential to understand natural processes to aid the design of appropriate, site-specific and integrated adaptation measures, including the testing of innovative approaches for dynamic site-specific risk-spreading strategies (Schmitt K, 2013)

Co-benefits, Suitability for Developing Countries
  • Carbon dioxide sequestration
  • Promotes fishery opportunities
  • Co-management with communities to ensure sustainability, protection and social acceptance
  • Involving local communities in mangrove management (through shared governance) is an effective way of maintaining and enhancing the protection function of the mangrove forest while providing livelihood for local people and contributing to better governance of natural resources
  • Payments for ecosystem service can contribute to sustainability
Information Resources

Ateneo School of Government. N.d. Examining Advocacy Avenues for Ecosystem-based Adaptation in Communities of Southeast Asia. Available at: [21 November 2014]

GIZ (2013) Saved health, saved wealth: an approach to quantifying the benefits of climate change adaptation. Practical application in coastal protection projects in Viet Nam. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH commissioned by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). Eschborn, Germany. Available at: [02 December 2014]

Nellemann, C., and E. Corcoran, eds. 2010. Dead Planet, Living Planet: Biodiversity and Ecosystem Restoration for Sustainable Development. A rapid response assessment. Nations Environment Programme, GRID-Arendal. Available at: [25 November 2014]

Schmitt K , Albers T, Dinh SC, (2013) Shoreline Management Guidelines - Coastal Protection in the Lower Mekong Delta. Published by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH. ISBN 978-604-59-0630-9. Vietnam.  Available at: [02 December 2014]

Schmitt K (2012) Mangrove planting, community participation and integrated management in Soc Trang Province, Viet Nam. In: Macintosh D, Mahindapala R, Markopoulos M (eds.) Sharing Lessons on Mangrove Restoration. pp. 205–226. Gland, Switzerland and Bangkok, Thailand: IUCN with Mangroves for the Future. Available at: [02 December 2014]

Schmitt, K. T. Albers, T. T. Pham, S. C. Dinh. 2013. Site-specific and integrated adaptation to climate change in the coastal mangrove zone of Soc Trang Province, Viet Nam. Journal of Coastal Conservation 17(3): 545-558 Available at: [21 November 2014]

Wetland international, n.d. Strengthening Coastal Resilience for Communities in Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia. Available at: [19 March  2015]