BEST PRACTICE IN:
Kiribati Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning - Office of the President, Government of Kiribati
UNDP; Asian Development Bank (ADB); World Bank; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); Australian Bureau of Meteorology and New Zealand Meteorological Office; United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)-Global Environmental Facility (GEF)
Global Environment Facility (GEF)-Trust Fund; Asian Development Bank (ADB)
The KAP is being implemented in three phases:
Phase I: Preparation (2003-2005, completed). This phase began the process of mainstreaming adaptation into national economic planning and identified priority pilot investments for Phase II. It also involved an extensive process of national consultation and was closely linked with the preparation of the 2004-07 National Development Strategy and Ministry Operational Plans, and the compilation of the NAPA, which was completed in early 2007.
Phase II: Pilot Implementation (2006-2010). The objective of this phase was to develop and demonstrate the systematic diagnosis of climate-related problems and the design and implementation of cost-effective adaptation measures, while continuing the integration of climate risk awareness and responsiveness into economic and operational planning.
Phase III: Expansion (2010-2015). Lessons learnt in Phase II are informing the design and preparation of an expanded programme for Climate Change Adaptation (CCA), which will incorporate Disaster Risk Reduction (DDR) measures, which, in Kiribati in particular, are closely linked to CCA initiatives.
The programme is now focusing on the country’s most vulnerable sectors in the most highly populated areas. Initiatives include improving water supply management in and around Tarawa; coastal management protection measures such as mangrove re-plantation and protection of public infrastructure; strengthening laws to reduce coastal erosion; and population settlement planning to reduce personal risks.
The programme aims to take place over six years, supporting measures that reduce Kiribati’s vulnerability to the effects of climate change and sea level rise by raising awareness of climate change, assessing and protecting available water resources, and managing inundation.
Phase II: Pilot Implementation (2006-2010)
The objective of this phase was to develop and demonstrate the systematic diagnosis of climate-related problems and the design and implementation of cost-effective adaptation measures, while continuing the integration of climate risk awareness and responsiveness into economic and operational planning.
The main biodiversity outcome would be the mainstreaming of biodiversity concerns into the overall government development efforts to reduce vulnerability to climate change, climate variability and sea level rise. Given the detrimental impacts of many of the ad hoc coastal protection efforts, such as mainstreaming provides major benefits in terms of biodiversity conservation. The environmental assessment process would prominently include attention for biodiversity, including in relation to the additional threats posed to these biodiversity resources by climate change. Key indicators include: the establishment of the Strategic National Policy and Risk Assessment Unit as the lead agency coordinating climate change adaptation and related strategic issues; the percentage of climate-affected programmes in Ministry Operational Plans that reflect systematic climate risk management; and consistent use of best practices in the application of risk management, environmental assessment and options analysis of public infrastructure.
Community education and awareness is very important for implementing adaptation strategies.
The KAP II project is made up of the following five components:
Component 1: Policy, planning, and information This component supports three core elements of all adaptation efforts in Kiribati. The first element is awareness raising and consultation including a public awareness and education campaign on behaviour change to inform user attitudes of water and coastal management. The second element is policy coordination and planning, including support to the Office of Te Beretitenti; continued mainstreaming into Ministry Operational Plans; and integration of adaptation into population and resettlement programs. The third element is to generate scientific climate risk information and refurbish the capacity of the Meteorological Office.
Component 2: Land use, physical structures, and ecosystems This component will contribute to reducing the vulnerability of the coastline, including key public assets and ecosystems, shifting the coastal management practice from a reactive, single technique approach to repairing damage as it occurs, to a preventative and more technically varied risk mitigation strategy, including more attention for environmental sustainability. More specifically, the component would support the development and application of improved risk diagnosis and response methods, and improvements in planning and permitting processes to guide coastal zone activities, including regulatory adjustments, awareness raising and enforcement, and economic and environmental monitoring. Secondly, the component will produce design and construction guidelines, and apply them to a sample of public assets that are at risk, including the national hospital and vulnerable coastal areas. Thirdly, the component includes monitoring and pilot activities to protect and restore coastal ecosystems and biodiversity affected by climate change, climate variability and sea level rise, including the detrimental effects of current adaptation practices.
Component 3: Freshwater resources This component supports the development and management of freshwater resources to reduce their vulnerability to climate variability and climate change. It will provide assistance to update the national water policy, water-related components of the building code, and rainwater harvesting guidelines, as well as provide Capacity Building in water resource management. Given that water management problems are most acute on South Tarawa, the most urbanised of the islands, this component will also support the preparation of a master plan for water resource usage and development on Tarawa, and pilot projects to improve supply. On the outer islands (primarily North Tarawa), the component focuses on water resource assessments and improvements in the water supply system in selected locations.
Component 4: Capacity at island and community level After a mid-term review of the project in November 2008, this component has now been deferred until KAP III save for a small sub-component that has been merged with component 1.
Component 5: Programme management This project component provides overall support to the project, including programme management, accounting, procurement, and running costs of the Programme Management Unit. It will also support the evaluation of KAP II in view of the design of the next phase of adaptation efforts.